HAMAP proteomes
Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans (strain Z-2901 / DSM 6008)

General information

Species:  Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans (strain Z-2901 / DSM 6008)
Species code: CARHZ
Taxonomy: Bacteria; Firmicutes; Clostridia; Thermoanaerobacterales; Thermoanaerobacteraceae; Carboxydothermus (TaxID: 246194) [NEWT/ NCBI]
Description: Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans is a hydrogenogen that was isolated from a hot spring in Kunashir Island, Russia. It belongs to the Firmicutes and grows optimally at 78 degrees Celsius. Hydrogenogens are organisms that grow anaerobically utilizing carbon monoxide (CO) as their sole carbon source and water as an electron acceptor, producing carbon dioxide and hydrogen as waste products. C.hydrogenoformans harbors a single circular chromosome. One 35-kilobase lambda-like prophage containing 50 CDS has been identified in the genome. Anaerobic species use carbon monoxide thanks to CO dehydrogenase (CODH) complexes. Five complexes have been detected in C.hydrogenoformans and have been named CODH I-V. CODH-I seems to play a role in energy conservation and CODH-III in carbon fixation. Several homologs of genes involved in sporulation in other Firmicutes have been found in C.hydrogenoformans. Among them, the master switch gene spo0A and all sporulation-specific sigma factors. Although sporulation had not been reported previously for this species, it has been shown to sporulate. Endospore-like structures were found when cultures were stressed. Of the 175 sporulation-related genes that exist in Bacillus subtilis, half have no homolog in C.hydrogenoformans. The spo0B and spo0F genes as well as many other genes involved in the protective outer layer formation, spore germination and small acid-soluble spore protein synthesis were missing. C.hydrogenoformans has been thought to be an autotroph strictly depending on CO for growth, however several aspects of its gene repertoire suggest heterotrophic capabilities. For example, it encodes transporters predicted to import various carbon compounds. It also possesses a cascade of chemotaxis genes and a complete set of flagellar genes. Chemotaxis allows microbes to respond to environmental stimuli by swimming towards nutrients (or away from toxic chemicals), which is a feature not commonly found in autotrophs. Therefore, the presence of a complete array of chemotaxis genes is consistent with its suggested heterotrophic capabilities. Thirteen two-component systems have been identified, many of which are next to transporters or oxidoreductases. C.hydrogenoformans lacks certain subfamilies of transcriptional factors that are present in its close Clostridia relatives. Its genome does not encode any protein of the LuxR family. It possesses all known components of the selenocysteine (Sec) insertion machinery and the Sec tRNA. A total of 12 selenocysteine-containing proteins have been identified. Most of them are redox proteins but two are transporters and one is a methylated-DNA-protein-cysteine methyltransferase, a suicidal DNA repair protein. Many potential cases of frameshifted genes have been identified but in absence of sequencing errors, some of them appear to be programmed frameshifts. Programmed frameshifting is a ubiquitous mechanism used to regulate translation or generate alternative protein products.
Properties: Presence of flagella: Yes
Human pathogen: No
Interaction: No
Number of membranes: 1

Genome(s) sequenced

Strain:    Z-2901 / DSM 6008
Genome structure:
Chromosome EMBL accession number CP000141 (circular; 2,401,520 bp) (download entry)
Reference(s):
[1] Pubmed=16311624;
Wu M., Ren Q., Durkin A.S., Daugherty S.C., Brinkac L.M., Dodson R.J., Madupu R., Sullivan S.A., Kolonay J.F., Nelson W.C., Tallon L.J., Jones K.M., Ulrich L.E., Gonzalez J.M., Zhulin I.B., Robb F.T., Eisen J.A. ;
"Life in hot carbon monoxide: the complete genome sequence of Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901.";
PLoS Genet. 1:563-574(2005).
Web links:
BioProject: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/253
CBS: http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/GenomeAtlas/show-genus.php?kingdom=Bacteria&GLgenus=Carboxydothermus&GLspecies=hydrogenoformans&GLstrain=Z2901
GOLD: http://www.genomesonline.org/cgi-bin/GOLD/GOLDCards.cgi?goldstamp=Gc00307
PEDANT: http://pedant.helmholtz-muenchen.de/pedant3htmlview/pedant3view?Method=analysis&Db=p3_p253_Car_hydro


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