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HAMAP rule MF_01480

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General rule information [?]

Accession MF_01480
Dates 17-JAN-2013 (Created)
19-NOV-2022 (Last updated, Version 10)
Name Cas9
Templates Q99ZW2 (CAS9_STRP1); G3ECR1 (CAS9_STRTR); Q03JI6 (CAS9B_STRTD); Q927P4 (CAS9_LISIN); J7RUA5 (CAS9_STAAU); A0Q5Y3 (CAS9_FRATN): [Recover all]

Propagated annotation [?]

Identifier, protein and gene names [?]

Protein name
RecName: Full=CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9;
EC 3.1.-.-;
Gene name

Comments [?]

Function CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) is an adaptive immune system that provides protection against mobile genetic elements (viruses, transposable elements and conjugative plasmids). CRISPR clusters contain spacers, sequences complementary to antecedent mobile elements, and target invading nucleic acids. CRISPR clusters are transcribed and processed into CRISPR RNA (crRNA). In type II CRISPR systems correct processing of pre-crRNA requires a trans-encoded small RNA (tracrRNA), endogenous ribonuclease 3 (rnc) and this protein. The tracrRNA serves as a guide for ribonuclease 3-aided processing of pre-crRNA. Subsequently Cas9/crRNA/tracrRNA endonucleolytically cleaves linear or circular dsDNA target complementary to the spacer; Cas9 is inactive in the absence of the 2 guide RNAs (gRNA). Cas9 recognizes the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the CRISPR repeat sequences to help distinguish self versus nonself, as targets within the bacterial CRISPR locus do not have PAMs. PAM recognition is also required for catalytic activity.
case <FTGroup:1> or <FTGroup:2>
Cofactor Mg(2+)
end case
Subunit Monomer. Binds crRNA and tracrRNA.
Domain Has 2 endonuclease domains. The discontinuous RuvC-like domain cleaves the target DNA noncomplementary to crRNA while the HNH nuclease domain cleaves the target DNA complementary to crRNA.
Similarity Belongs to the CRISPR-associated Cas9 family.

Keywords [?]

case <FTGroup:1> or <FTGroup:2>
end case

Gene Ontology [?]

GO:0004519; Molecular function: endonuclease activity.
GO:0046872; Molecular function: metal ion binding.
GO:0051607; Biological process: defense response to virus.
GO:0043571; Biological process: maintenance of CRISPR repeat elements.

Cross-references [?]

Pfam PF13395; HNH_4; 1;
TIGRFAMs TIGR01865; cas_Csn1; 1;
PROSITE PS51749; HNH_CAS9; 1; trigger=PRU01085;

Features [?]

From: CAS9_STRP1 (Q99ZW2)
Key     From     To       Description   Tag   Condition   FTGroup
ACT_SITE     10     10       For RuvC-like nuclease domain     D  
ACT_SITE     840     840       Proton acceptor for HNH nuclease domain     H  
BINDING     10     10       /ligand="Mg(2+)" /ligand_id="ChEBI:CHEBI:18420" /ligand_label="1     D   1
BINDING     10     10       /ligand="Mg(2+)" /ligand_id="ChEBI:CHEBI:18420" /ligand_label="2     D   2
BINDING     762     762       /ligand="Mg(2+)" /ligand_id="ChEBI:CHEBI:18420" /ligand_label="1     E   1
BINDING     766     766       /ligand="Mg(2+)" /ligand_id="ChEBI:CHEBI:18420" /ligand_label="1     E   1
BINDING     766     766       /ligand="Mg(2+)" /ligand_id="ChEBI:CHEBI:18420" /ligand_label="2     E   2
BINDING     983     983       /ligand="Mg(2+)" /ligand_id="ChEBI:CHEBI:18420" /ligand_label="2     H   2

Additional information [?]

Size range 984-1688 amino acids
Related rules None
Fusion None
Comments The signature gene for type II CRISPR/Cas systems. The simplicity of the system (1 protein plus 2 gRNAs that can be engineered into 1 longer transcript) has been used for genome editing in human, mouse, plant, yeast and bacterial cells. Introduction of multiple sgRNAs leads to multiplexed editing of genomic loci; DNA has also been inserted into mammals.