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HAMAP rule MF_01480

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General rule information [?]

Accession MF_01480
Dates 17-JAN-2013 (Created)
1-JUN-2023 (Last updated, Version 11)
Name Cas9
Scope(s) Bacteria
Template(s) Q99ZW2 (CAS9_STRP1); G3ECR1 (CAS9_STRTR); Q03JI6 (CAS9B_STRTD); Q927P4 (CAS9_LISIN); J7RUA5 (CAS9_STAAU); A0Q5Y3 (CAS9_FRATN); [ Recover all ]
Triggered by HAMAP; MF_01480 (Get profile general information and statistics)

Propagated annotation [?]

Identifier, protein and gene names [?]

Identifier CAS9
Protein name RecName: Full=CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9;
Gene name Name=cas9;

Comments [?]

FUNCTIONCRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) is an adaptive immune system that provides protection against mobile genetic elements (viruses, transposable elements and conjugative plasmids). CRISPR clusters contain spacers, sequences complementary to antecedent mobile elements, and target invading nucleic acids. CRISPR clusters are transcribed and processed into CRISPR RNA (crRNA). In type II CRISPR systems correct processing of pre-crRNA requires a trans- encoded small RNA (tracrRNA), endogenous ribonuclease 3 (rnc) and this protein. The tracrRNA serves as a guide for ribonuclease 3-aided processing of pre-crRNA. Subsequently Cas9/crRNA/tracrRNA endonucleolytically cleaves linear or circular dsDNA target complementary to the spacer; Cas9 is inactive in the absence of the 2 guide RNAs (gRNA). Cas9 recognizes the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the CRISPR repeat sequences to help distinguish self versus nonself, as targets within the bacterial CRISPR locus do not have PAMs. PAM recognition is also required for catalytic activity.
case <FTGroup:1> or <FTGroup:2>
COFACTOR Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
end case
SUBUNITMonomer. Binds crRNA and tracrRNA.
DOMAINHas 2 endonuclease domains. The discontinuous RuvC-like domain cleaves the target DNA noncomplementary to crRNA while the HNH nuclease domain cleaves the target DNA complementary to crRNA.
SIMILARITYBelongs to the CRISPR-associated Cas9 family.

Keywords [?]

Gene Ontology [?]

GO:0004519; Molecular function:endonuclease activity
GO:0046872; Molecular function:metal ion binding
GO:0051607; Biological process:defense response to virus
GO:0043571; Biological process:maintenance of CRISPR repeat elements

Cross-references [?]

Pfam PF13395; HNH_4; 1;
NCBIfam TIGR01865; cas_Csn1; 1;

Features [?]

From: CAS9_STRP1 (Q99ZW2)
Key From To Description Tag Condition FTGroup
ACT_SITE 10 10 /note="For RuvC-like nuclease domain" D
ACT_SITE 840 840 /note="Proton acceptor for HNH nuclease domain" H
BINDING 10 10 /ligand="Mg(2+)"
D 1
BINDING 10 10 /ligand="Mg(2+)"
D 2
BINDING 762 762 /ligand="Mg(2+)"
E 1
BINDING 766 766 /ligand="Mg(2+)"
E 1
BINDING 766 766 /ligand="Mg(2+)"
E 2
BINDING 983 983 /ligand="Mg(2+)"
H 2

Additional information [?]

Size range 984-1688 amino acids
Related rules None
Fusion Nter: None Cter: None
Comments The signature gene for type II CRISPR/Cas systems. The simplicity of the system (1 protein plus 2 gRNAs that can be engineered into 1 longer transcript) has been used for genome editing in human, mouse, plant, yeast and bacterial cells. Introduction of multiple sgRNAs leads to multiplexed editing of genomic loci; DNA has also been inserted into mammals.

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