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HAMAP rule MF_04081

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General rule information [?]

Accession MF_04081
Dates 1-JUN-2017 (Created)
4-JUN-2021 (Last updated, Version 6)
Scope(s) Viruses
Template(s) P69723 (VIF_HV1H2); [ Recover all ]
Triggered by HAMAP; MF_04081 (Get profile general information and statistics)

Propagated annotation [?]

Identifier, protein and gene names [?]

Identifier VIF
Protein name RecName: Full=Virion infectivity factor;
AltName: Full=SOR protein;
RecName: Full=p17;
RecName: Full=p7;
Gene name Name=vif;

Comments [?]

FUNCTIONCounteracts the innate antiviral activity of host APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G. Forms a complex with host APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G thus preventing the entry of these lethally hypermutating enzymes into progeny virions. Recruits an active E3 ubiquitin ligase complex composed of elongin BC, CUL5, and RBX2 to induce polyubiquitination of APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F. In turn, they are directed to the 26S proteasome for degradation. Vif interaction with APOBEC3G also blocks its cytidine deaminase activity in a proteasome-independent manner, suggesting a dual inhibitory mechanism. May interact directly with APOBEC3G mRNA in order to inhibit its translation. Seems to play a role in viral morphology by affecting the stability of the viral nucleoprotein core. Finally, Vif also contributes to the G2 cell cycle arrest observed in HIV infected cells.
SUBUNITHomomultimer; in vitro and presumably in vivo. Interacts with viral RNA and Pr55Gag precursor; these interactions mediate Vif incorporation into the virion. Interacts with the viral reverse transcriptase. Interacts with human APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G. Interacts with host UBCE7IP1 isoform 3/ZIN and possibly with SAT. Interacts with host tyrosine kinases HCK and FYN; these interactions may decrease level of phosphorylated APOBEC3G incorporation into virions. Interacts with host ABCE1; this interaction may play a role in protecting viral RNA from damage during viral assembly. Forms an E3 ligase complex by interacting with host CUL5 and elongin BC complex (ELOB and ELOC). Interacts with host MDM2; this interaction targets Vif for degradation by the proteasome.
SUBCELLULAR LOCATIONHost cytoplasm. Host cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side. Virion. Note=In the cytoplasm, seems to colocalize with intermediate filament vimentin. A fraction is associated with the cytoplasmic side of cellular membranes, presumably via the interaction with Pr55Gag precursor. Incorporated in virions at a ratio of approximately 7 to 20 molecules per virion.
INDUCTIONExpressed late during infection in a Rev-dependent manner.
DOMAINThe BC-like-box motif mediates the interaction with elongin BC complex.
DOMAINThe HCCH motif (H-x(5)-C-x(18)-C-x(5)-H) mediates the interaction with CUL5.
PTMProcessed in virion by the viral protease.
PTMHighly phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues.
PTMPolyubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome in the presence of APOBEC3G.
MISCELLANEOUSRequired for replication in 'nonpermissive' cells, including primary T-cells, macrophages and certain T-cell lines, but is dispensable for replication in 'permissive' cell lines, such as 293T cells. In nonpermissive cells, Vif-defective viruses can produce virions, but they fail to complete reverse transcription and cannot successfully infect new cells.
MISCELLANEOUSVif-defective viruses show catastrophic failure in reverse transcription due to APOBEC-induced mutations that initiate a DNA base repair pathway and compromise the structural integrity of the ssDNA. In the absence of Vif, the virion is morphologically abnormal.
MISCELLANEOUSHIV-1 lineages are divided in three main groups, M (for Major), O (for Outlier), and N (for New, or Non-M, Non-O). The vast majority of strains found worldwide belong to the group M. Group O seems to be endemic to and largely confined to Cameroon and neighboring countries in West Central Africa, where these viruses represent a small minority of HIV-1 strains. The group N is represented by a limited number of isolates from Cameroonian persons. The group M is further subdivided in 9 clades or subtypes (A to D, F to H, J and K).
SIMILARITYBelongs to the primate lentivirus group Vif protein family.

Keywords [?]

Gene Ontology [?]

GO:0030430; Cellular component:host cell cytoplasm
GO:0020002; Cellular component:host cell plasma membrane
GO:0016020; Cellular component:membrane
GO:0005654; Cellular component:nucleoplasm
GO:0044423; Cellular component:virion component
GO:0003723; Molecular function:RNA binding

Cross-references [?]

Pfam PF00559; Vif; 1;

Features [?]

From: VIF_HV1H2 (P69723)
Key From To Description Tag Condition FTGroup
CHAIN Nter Cter /note="Virion infectivity factor"
CHAIN 1 150 /note="p17"
CHAIN 151 192 /note="p7"
REGION 14 17 /note="Interaction with host APOBEC3F; F1-box"
REGION 40 44 /note="Interaction with host APOBEC3G; G-box"
REGION 54 72 /note="Interaction with host APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G; FG-box"
REGION 74 79 /note="Interaction with host APOBEC3F; F2-box"
REGION 75 114 /note="RNA-binding"
REGION 151 164 /note="Multimerization"
REGION 171 172 /note="Membrane association" E-D
MOTIF 108 139 /note="HCCH motif"
MOTIF 144 153 /note="BC-box-like motif"
SITE 150 151 /note="Cleavage in virion (by viral protease)"
MOD_RES 96 96 /note="Phosphothreonine; by host MAP4K1" T
MOD_RES 144 144 /note="Phosphoserine; by host" S
MOD_RES 155 155 /note="Phosphothreonine; by host" T
MOD_RES 165 165 /note="Phosphoserine; by host MAP4K1" S
MOD_RES 188 188 /note="Phosphothreonine; by host" T

Additional information [?]

Size range 188-193 amino acids
Related rules None
Fusion Nter: None Cter: None

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