HAMAP proteomes
Borrelia afzelii (strain PKo)

General information

Species:  Borrelia afzelii (strain PKo)
Species code: BORAP
Taxonomy: Bacteria; Spirochaetes; Spirochaetales; Borreliaceae; Borreliella (TaxID: 390236) [NEWT/ NCBI]
Description: Borreliae, the causative agent of Lyme disease, are obligatorily bound to their host organisms for survival. During their life cycle they switch from the invertebrate host tick (Ixodes spec.) to various vertebrate hosts via a tick bite. It seems that Borellia have three indispensable components; a chromosome, a circular plasmid of approximately 26 kb (cp27 in B.afzelli) and a linear plasmid of approximately 54 kb (lp60-1 in B.afzelli), each species can also contain many other plasmids. The range of vertebrates and invertebrates used as hosts is thought to be mediated by factors encoded mainly on a large number of different plasmids found in Borreliae genomes. These plasmids are characterized by their wealth of paralogous genes. It is thought that Borreliae plasmids are not stable and are frequently rearranged leading to differing plasmid content within a species. The chromosome is also involved in fission/fusion events, and the right end of the chromosome of B. burgdorferi strains is variable due to its ability to catch plasmids. During passage plasmids can be lost due to the lack of selection pressure, which can be accompanied by the inability of Borreliae to prosper in the host.

B.afzelii Pko was originally isolated from human skin, and the early passage (8th) is infectious in gerbils. It was first incompletely sequenced in 2006, which was made up of early (8th) and late (70th) passage sequences; in the late passage the vls gene locus encoding for variable surface proteins is missing, which probably accounts for the fragmentary nature of plasmid lp31. The plasmids contribute at least 36% of the total genome; there are probably 9 circular and 7 linear plasmids, not all of which have been closed. It was sequenced again, this time fully, in 2011.
Properties: Presence of flagella: not known
Human pathogen: Yes
Interaction: Animal pathogen in Mammalia
Number of membranes: 2

Genome(s) sequenced

Strain:    PKo
Genome structure:
• Chromosome EMBL accession number CP000395 (linear; 905,394 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid lp60-1 EMBL accession number CP000396 (linear; 59,958 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid lp60-2 EMBL accession number CP000397 (linear; 59,804 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid lp34 EMBL accession number CP000398 (linear; 34,273 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid lp32 EMBL accession number CP000399 (linear; 32,368 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid cp30 EMBL accession number CP000400 (circular; 30,017 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid lp28 EMBL accession number CP000401 (linear; 28,533 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid cp27 EMBL accession number CP000402 (circular; 26,533 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid lp25 EMBL accession number CP000403 (linear; 24,794 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid lp31 fragment a EMBL accession number CP000404 (linear; 8,579 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid lp31 fragment b EMBL accession number CP000405 (linear; 15,403 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid lp31 fragment c EMBL accession number CP000406 (linear; 6,847 bp) (download entry)
[1] Pubmed=16914037;
Gloeckner G., Schulte-Spechtel U., Schilhabel M., Felder M., Suehnel J., Wilske B., Platzer M. ;
"Comparative genome analysis: selection pressure on the Borrelia vls cassettes is essential for infectivity.";
BMC Genomics 7:211-211(2006).
Web links:
Official genome site(s):
Other web sites:
BioProject: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/17057
GOLD: http://www.genomesonline.org/cgi-bin/GOLD/GOLDCards.cgi?goldstamp=Gc00408
PEDANT: http://pedant.helmholtz-muenchen.de/pedant3htmlview/pedant3view?Method=analysis&Db=p3_p17057_Bor_afzel

Strain:    PKo
Genome structure:
• Chromosome EMBL accession number CP002933 (linear; 903,609 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid cp26 EMBL accession number CP002934 (circular; 26,539 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid cp32-11 EMBL accession number CP002935 (circular; 30,718 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid cp32-12 EMBL accession number CP002936 (circular; 30,065 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid cp32-1 EMBL accession number CP002937 (circular; 30,000 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid cp32-5 EMBL accession number CP002939 (circular; 30,949 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid cp32-7 EMBL accession number CP002940 (circular; 25,262 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid cp32-9 EMBL accession number CP002941 (circular; 29,421 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid lp28-2 EMBL accession number CP002943 (linear; 26,626 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid lp28-3 EMBL accession number CP002944 (linear; 22,901 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid lp28-4 EMBL accession number CP002945 (linear; 22,449 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid lp28-7 EMBL accession number CP002946 (linear; 27,239 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid lp28-8 EMBL accession number CP002947 (linear; 20,715 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid lp32-10 EMBL accession number CP002948 (linear; 30,180 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid lp38 EMBL accession number CP002949 (linear; 33,903 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid cp32-3 EMBL accession number CP002938 (circular; 31,118 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid lp17 EMBL accession number CP002942 (linear; 24,675 bp) (download entry)
• Plasmid lp54 EMBL accession number CP002950 (linear; 57,919 bp) (download entry)
[1] Pubmed=22123755;
Casjens S.R., Mongodin E.F., Qiu W.G., Dunn J.J., Luft B.J., Fraser-Liggett C.M., Schutzer S.E. ;
"Whole-genome sequences of two Borrelia afzelii and two Borrelia garinii Lyme disease agent isolates.";
J. Bacteriol. 193:6995-6996(2011).
Web links:
BioProject: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/68149
GOLD: http://www.genomesonline.org/cgi-bin/GOLD/GOLDCards.cgi?goldstamp=Gc01916